Robot-assisted microsurgery for chronic orchialgia
Chronic orchialgia is one of the most common complaints seen in the urologists office and has traditionally been considered a very difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the clinician. First line management of chronic orchialgia is conservative treatment; however, in men who fail conservative therapy, surgical intervention may be indicated. Microsurgery has been the mainstay for surgical treatment of chronic orchialgia, but the implementation of robotics to microsurgery lends itself particularly to surgical treatment of chronic orchialgia. PubMed was used to perform a current literature search on chronic orchialgia with robotic microsurgery, robotic spermatic cord denervation, robotic varicocelectomy, and robotic vasectomy reversal. Although conservative therapy is considered the first line treatment for chronic orchialgia, reported outcomes are moderate to poor, with the need to proceed to surgical intervention in select cases. Current surgical therapies in which robot assistance have been applied to microsurgery include microsurgical denervation of the spermatic cord, varicocelectomy, and vasectomy reversal. As further studies have assisted in the understanding of surgical treatment of chronic orchialgia, the application of robot assistance to this level of microsurgery has been shown to be feasible and safe with comparable outcomes to traditional microsurgery and may provide potential advantages.